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HI-line-21centimetre

the pioneer golden plaque revisited, 
interpretation looking sideways



"Depuis le début de la conquête spatiale, nous envoyons des messages à de supposés intelligences extraterrestres..."

Pioneer 10 on its kickmotor

Pioneer F (Pioneer-10) spacecraft delivered to NASA at Cape Kennedy from TRW.  Pioneer 10 attached to it's kickmotor TE-M-364-4  Date 26 February 1972. Source: NASA


pioneer 10 : 68338800 march 2 1972 
pioneer 11 : 71276400 april 5 1973
pioneer under construction

pioneer 10 :systems diagam
pioneer 10 :artist diagam with thrusters

pioneer 10 approaching Jupiter,:artist depiction Credit: NASA


A replica of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft on display in Boeing Milestones of Flight Hall at the National Mall building.

Image Number: 2005-20394
Credit: Image by Eric Long, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution 

Pioneer 10 / 11, reconstructed full-scale mock-up

During the latter 1960s, G.A. Flandro, a JPL scientist, discovered that once every 176 years both the Earth and all the giant planets of the Solar System gather on one side of the Sun. This geometric line-up made possible close‑up observation of all the planets in the outer solar system (with the exception of Pluto) in a single flight, the "Grand Tour." The flyby of each planet would bend the spacecraft's flight path and increase its velocity enough to deliver it to the next destination. This would occur through a complicated process known as "gravity assist," something like a slingshot effect, whereby the flight time to Neptune could be reduced from 30 to 12 years. Such a configuration was due to occur in the late 1970s, and it led to one of the most significant space probe efforts undertaken by the U.S.

To prepare the way for the "Grand Tour," NASA conceived Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 as outer solar system probes. Both were small, nuclear‑powered, spin‑stabilized spacecraft that Atlas‑Centaur launched. The first of these was launched on 3 March 1972, traveled outward to Jupiter, and in May 1991 was about 52 Astronautical Units (AU), roughly twice the distance from Jupiter to the Sun, and still transmitting data. In 1973, NASA launched Pioneer 11, providing scientists with their closest view of Jupiter, from 26,600 miles above the cloud tops in December 1974. The close approach and the spacecraft's speed of 107,373 mph, by far the fastest ever reached by a an object from Earth, hurled Pioneer 11 1.5‑billion miles across the Solar System toward Saturn. It was expected that as Pioneer 11 passed beyond Saturn it would continue to return data to Earth through the year 2000, in the process extending its original 30‑month design life to 28 years.


For over 30 years, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft sent photographs and scientific information back to Earth. Launched March 2, 1972, it reached speeds of 52,100 kilometers (32,400 miles) per hour on its flight to Jupiter, making it one of the fastest human-made objects ever. After completing an investigation of Jupiter, Pioneer 10 continued on to the outer regions of the solar system, studying solar wind and cosmic rays.

Having gone further into space than any other object sent from Earth, Pioneer's last weak signal was received on January 22, 2003, from approximately 12.2 billion kilometers (7.6 billion miles) from Earth. NASA engineers reported that Pioneer 10's radioisotope power source had degraded and was not likely to allow future transmissions.

As it drifts into interstellar space, Pioneer 10 will continue to carry a plaque designed to inform intelligent life that may find it about the spacecraft and its origins. The prototype spacecraft displayed here was constructed for NASA by TRW, Inc.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Country of Origin
United States of America
Manufacturer
TRW, Inc.
Location
National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC
Exhibition
Boeing Milestones of Flight Hall
Type
SPACECRAFT-Unmanned
Materials
Aluminum, mixed metals, phenolics
Dimensions
Overall: 9 ft. wide x 9 ft. 6 in. long x 9 ft. diameter, 9 ft. span, 568 lb. (274.32 x 289.56 x 274.32cm, 257.6kg, 274.32cm)
http://www.donaldedavis.com/


Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, weighing 258 kilograms, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter. Thereafter, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity from the Solar System. This space exploration project was conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center in California, and the space probe was manufactured by TRW.

Pioneer 10 was assembled around a hexagonal bus with a 2.74 meter diameter parabolic dish high-gain antenna, and the spacecraft was spin stabilized around the axis of the antenna. Its electric power was supplied by four radioisotope thermoelectric generators that provided a combined 155 watts at launch.

Pioneer 10 was launched on March 3, 1972, by an Atlas-Centaur expendable vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Between July 15, 1972, and February 15, 1973, it became the first spacecraft to traverse the asteroid belt. Photography of Jupiter began November 6, 1973, at a range of 25,000,000 km, and a total of about 500 images were transmitted. The closest approach to the planet was on December 4, 1973, at a range of 132,252 km. During the mission, the on-board instruments were used to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter, the solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the solar system and heliosphere. Radio communications were lost with Pioneer 10 on January 23, 2003, because of the loss of electric power for its radio transmitter, with the probe at a distance of 12 billion kilometers (80 AU) from Earth.


Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259 kilogram (569 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the Solar System and heliosphere. It was the first probe to encounter Saturn and the second to fly through the asteroid belt and by Jupiter. Due to power constraints and the vast distance to the probe, last contact with the spacecraft was on September 30, 1995

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were the first human-built objects to achieve escape velocity from the Solar System. The plaques were attached to the spacecraft's antenna support struts in a position that would shield them from erosion by stellar dust.

Mission
Imaging Jupiter

Pioneer 10's primary target was the planet Jupiter. It launched from Earth on an Atlas-Centaur three-stage launcher, intended to boost the spacecraft to 32,400 mph (52,142 kph). Sailing away from Earth faster than any spacecraft before it, Pioneer soared by the moon just 11 hours later and made it past Mars in only three months.

Perhaps Pioneer's most dangerous phase was the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, which it reached on July 15. Pioneer faced the risk of colliding with bits of asteroids, anywhere from the size of a small particle to rocks as big as the state of Alaska, according to NASA. But it made it safely to the other side and reached Jupiter on Dec. 3, 1973.

Pioneer 10 was just intended to be a scout for future missions, so its stay at Jupiter was brief. It came within 81,000 miles (130,000 kilometers) of the surface as it sailed past. Pictures beamed back to Earth revealed Jupiter as a liquid giant, while other instruments recorded information on Jupiter's radiation belts and magnetic fields.

The spacecraft also sent back snapshots of some of Jupiter's moons. Although the shots were taken from a distance, scientists could pick out shadows and featureson Europa, Ganymede, Io and Callisto. It was incredible resolution compared to the almost 400 years of observations previously done through telescopes.

On through the outer solar system

Pioneer's story does not end there. For about a quarter-century, the little spacecraft flew farther and farther away from Earth and continued producing science. It measured particles streaming from the sun, and cosmic rays incoming from outside the solar system.

Along with sister ship Pioneer 11, the spacecraft also embroiled scientists in an intergalactic mystery. For decades, NASA was puzzled as to why the two probes travelled 3,000 miles (4,828 km) less than projected, every single year.

Dubbed the "Pioneer Anomaly," it was only in 2012 that NASA found out what happened: heat flowing through the spacecrafts' power systems and instruments was pushing back on the Pioneers as they moved out of the solar system.

NASA concluded Pioneer's science mission on March 31, 1997, but kept track of the spacecraft through the Deep Space Network. Obtaining its signal was used as training for flight controllers looking to get data from the Lunar Prospector mission, which flew for 19 months before being deliberately crashed into the moon's surface in 1999.

Pioneer 10 last sent data back to Earth on April 27, 2002. Its decaying signals were just too faint for NASA's antennas to pick up anymore.

As far as we know, the spacecraft sails on. NASA warmly refers to Pioneer 10 as a "ghost ship" of the outer solar system as the spacecraft coasts in the general direction of Aldebaran – the eye of the bull in the constellation Taurus.

Residents of that region of space will need to be patient if they want to see Pioneer 10. NASA expects it will take the spacecraft 2 million years to traverse the 68 light-years of space to Aldebaran.

— Elizabeth Howell, SPACE.com Contributor

Newspaper article

 
 
 
Newspaper article from "Bangor Daily News" June 14 1988


Instruments and art
Launched on March 2, 1972, Pioneer 10 was the latest in a series of missions to explore space, which was still a very new frontier at the time. The earliest Pioneers aimed for the moon, while later generations forged farther and farther into space.

This spacecraft, powered by four radioisotope thermoelectric generators, measured 9.5 feet (2.9 meters) long and weighed 570 pounds (258 kilograms). Among the instruments and camera equipment on board, Pioneer also carried something special: a six- by nine-inch (15.2 by 22.8 centimeters) gold plaque.


The Pioneer gold plaques / Message aux extraterrestres
The Pioneer plaques are a pair of gold-anodized aluminium plaques which were placed on board the 1972 Pioneer 10 and 1973 Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 is intercepted by extraterrestrial life. The plaques show the nude figures of a human male and female along with several symbols that are designed to provide information about the origin of the spacecraft.

History of the Pioneer Plaque

"... the initial suggestion to include
some message aboard Pioneer 10 was
made by Eric Burgess and Richard
Hoagland ..."
-- Carl Sagan, SCIENCE, 175 (1972) 881.

( better resolution found below )



The plaque depicts two nude figures – a man and a woman – along with diagrams of the solar system and the sun's position in space. It was intended to serve as a map to Earth for any extraterrestrials who might be curious about who made the spacecraft.

Two people designed the plaque: famed television host and astronomer Carl Sagan, and Frank Drake, founder of SETI and author of an equation that measures the likelihood of communicating with intelligent life.



The plaque attached to Pioneer 10 - February 25 1972 - NASA/HQ - http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001621.html

Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 carry a plaque that features a design engraved into a gold-anodized aluminum plate attached to the spacecraft's antenna support struts to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust.

The original idea, that the Pioneer spacecraft should carry a message from mankind, was first mentioned by Eric Burgess when he visited the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, during the Mariner 9 mission. He approached Carl Sagan, who had lectured about communication with extraterrestrial intelligences at a conference in Crimea. Sagan was enthusiastic about the idea of sending a message with the Pioneer spacecraft. NASA agreed to the plan and gave him three weeks to prepare a message. Together with Frank Drake he designed the plaque, and the artwork was prepared by Sagan's then-wife Linda Salzman Sagan. Both plaques were manufactured at Precision Engravers, San Carlos, California. The first plaque was launched with Pioneer 10 on March 2, 1972, and the second followed with Pioneer 11 on April 5, 1973.


Linda Salzman (born July 16, 1940) is an artist and writer, who created the artwork for the plaque on the Pioneer spacecraft and co produced the Voyager Golden Record. She co-authored the book Murmurs of Earth with her husband, astronomer Carl Sagan, whom she married on April 6, 1968; the marriage lasted until their divorce in 1981. She also directed plays for the Central Casting Theater in Ithaca, New York and for writing episodes of television shows such as Knots Landing and General Hospital. Salzman is the mother of author and screenwriter Nick Sagan.




The original Sagan et al paper, published in SCIENCE magazine, March, 1972 -- describing the background thinking, significant problems, and calculations that went into the initial "Message from Mankind" ...
page 1
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 click to enlarge click to enlarge click to enlarge click to enlarge

Newspaper article from "The Spokesman Review" - February 25 1972

Thoughts on message construction
What Do You Say to An Extraterrestrial? by Seth Shostak, SETI Institute   |   December 02, 2004 06:30am ET

I once thought that worrying about what we should broadcast to extraterrestrials made as much sense as fretting over the small talk I'd venture with King Carl XVI Gustaf if I won the Nobel Prize. I reckoned there was no need to dwell on the problem, as it was both hypothetical and irrelevant.

Well, I've changed my mind. Not about the chances for a Nobel Prize, but about the value in devoting some cerebral CPU cycles to the matter of interstellar messaging. Part of this shift is due to my colleague at the SETI Institute, Doug Vakoch, who has penned a number of erudite articles on the problem. A few of his insights have managed to percolate through the walls that separate our offices. In addition, new telescopes being built for SETI will soon speed up our search by factors of a hundred and more. So it's entirely possible, in my view, that we could retrieve a message from another world within just a few decades. Suddenly, the idea of "talking back" would become more than just a wry, dry academic straw man.

There's also the enticement that pondering what to say and how to say it might help snag that extraterrestrial signal in the first place. It could give us a clue as to what we're looking for.

Fact is, we've occasionally sent deliberate messages to the stars. For example, there was the plaque on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, with an engraving featuring a friendly couple in nature's garb and a map of our location in the Galaxy. The Pioneers' interplanetary successors, the Voyagers, carried a crude videodisk, with music, voices, and a small selection of inoffensive photos that could be played with a 16-2/3 rpm turntable and a mechanical needle. Thirty years ago, a radio message was broadcast by the Arecibo radio telescope to a star cluster in the constellation of Hercules. It was a spartan graphic, amounting to a mere 210 bytes of data.

All our messages have been, like Igor, short and simple. This has led us, I think, to imagine that future cosmic broadcasts would also have to be compact and easily intelligible to beings who (unlike those on TV) will not have mastered colloquial English. Messages based on imagery or the regularities of music and mathematics have all been proposed.

But I suggest that we may have been too limited in our thinking. When Samuel Morse tapped out the first intercity telegraph message in 1844, it consisted of a paltry four words ("What hath God wrought?") Well, no surprise: the bandwidth of the telegraph was low, as was the patience of the crowd.

The bandwidth for interstellar messaging does not have to be low, however. At microwave radio frequencies, you could easily send a megabyte a second. At infrared wavelengths, you could up the bit rate to a gigabyte per second over long distances, and a hundred times more over shorter spans (say less than 1,000 light-years). These transmission speeds are largely set by the dispersive effects of the hot gas that fills interstellar space, and they vary a bit depending on direction and wavelength. But the point is, there's no need to skimp on the information you transmit to cosmic listeners. The data pipe is fat.

At a recent International Astronautics Congress, I presented these calculations and a few suggestions regarding their implications. For example, a society outfitted with an infrared laser of sufficient power could send the equivalent of the Encyclopedia Britannica to a million solar system targets in a day. In this way, an inquisitive civilization could "ping" large numbers of worlds, thereby raising its chances for successfully signaling a planet inhabited by thinking beings.

So here's my take on message construction: Forget about sending mathematical relationships, the value of pi, or the Fibonacci series. Rid your brain of the thought (no doubt borrowed from "Close Encounters of the Third Kind") that aliens are best addressed with musical arpeggios. No, if we want to broadcast a message from Earth, I propose that we just feed the Google servers into the transmitter. Send the aliens the World Wide Web. It would take half a year or less to transmit this in the microwave; using infrared lasers shortens the broadcast time to no more than two days.

Sure, the Web contains a lot of redundant information (and a lot of unsavory material, too, but after all, that's part of the human condition). And yes, it's largely in English, which even their universal translators might not know. But the point is, with so much redundant information, clever beings will have sufficient data for decipherment. When Jean Francois Champollion decoded the Egyptian hieroglyphics in the 19th century, he benefited greatly from access to the Rosetta Stone. But even without that rocky document, someone would have puzzled out the hieroglyphics eventually, simply because there are so gosh-darn many of them. They cover wall upon wall in ancient Egyptian edifices. Same with the Web: there's just lots of data, and the redundancy (and perhaps the pictures) would help any translator.

The difference between Samuel Morse's first, terse telegraph message and the bit stream spewed by a modern telecommunications satellite is enormous. Keep that in mind when you think of contacting other societies with something akin to the Pioneer plaque. Sure, that gold-plated greeting card was a great start, but if we're really thinking about interstellar messages, we should think big.



The illustration on the Pioneer plaque - Vectors by Oona Räisänen (Mysid); designed by Carl Sagan & Frank Drake; artwork by Linda Salzman Sagan - Vectorized in CorelDRAW from NASA image GPN-2000-001623


Some interpretation of male and female
This is the ‘message in a bottle’ approach to potential extra-terrestrial civilizations in the far flung future. But – and the focus of the poem ‘Translunar Spacemarch, 1972’ by the recently-departed Scots poet, Edwin Morgan – visuality (scopic regime) is clearly evident in the interpretation of male and female form on the Pioneer plaques.
In Rose (2007, p. 7) it is the “principles of inclusion and exclusion” (Fyfe and Law cited in Rose 2007) that are engaged when considering the compositional modalities. Reading from left to right, the male is slightly foregrounded – possibly occupying the power in this relationship – and is of a generic European ethnicity: no African American, Chinese or other ethnic traits are visible. The woman is depicted in a slightly deferential pose – her gaze deprecating to the ‘powerful’ male to her left, hand raised in a formal ‘peaceful’ greeting.

Included on both spacecraft is the small gold-plated aluminum plaque which the figures of a man and a woman are shown to scale next to a line silhouette of the spacecraft. The bracketing bars on the far right are the representation of the number 8 in binary form (1000), where one is indicated above by the spin-flip radiation transition of a hydrogen atom from electron state spin up to state spin down that gives a characteristic radio wave length of 21 cm (8.3 inches). Therefore, the woman is 8 x 21 cm = 168 cm, or about 5' 6" tall. The bottom of the plaque shows schematically the path that Pioneers 10 and 11 took to escape the solar system - starting at the third planet from the Sun accelerating with a gravity assist from Jupiter out of the solar system. Also shown to help identify the origin of the spacecraft is a radial pattern etched on the plaque that represents the position of our Sun relative to 14 nearby pulsars (i.e., spinning neutron stars) and a line directed to the center of our Galaxy. The plaque may be considered as the cosmic equivalent to a message in a bottle cast into the sea. Sometime in the far distant future, perhaps billions of years from now, Pioneer may pass through a planetary system of a remote stellar neighbor, one of whose planets may have evolved intelligent life. If that life possesses the technical ability and curiosity, it may detect and pick up the spacecraft and inspect it. Then the plaque with its message from Earth may be found and deciphered. The late Dr. Carl Sagan, who helped design the plaque, discusses the significance of the plaque placed in Pioneer 10.

Some interpretation of male and female
Included on both spacecraft is the small gold-plated aluminum plaque which the figures of a man and a woman are shown to scale next to a line silhouette of the spacecraft. The bracketing bars on the far right are the representation of the number 8 in binary form (1000), where one is indicated above by the spin-flip radiation transition of a hydrogen atom from electron state spin up to state spin down that gives a characteristic radio wave length of 21 cm (8.3 inches). Therefore, the woman is 8 x 21 cm = 168 cm, or about 5' 6" tall. The bottom of the plaque shows schematically the path that Pioneers 10 and 11 took to escape the solar system - starting at the third planet from the Sun accelerating with a gravity assist from Jupiter out of the solar system. Also shown to help identify the origin of the spacecraft is a radial pattern etched on the plaque that represents the position of our Sun relative to 14 nearby pulsars (i.e., spinning neutron stars) and a line directed to the center of our Galaxy. The plaque may be considered as the cosmic equivalent to a message in a bottle cast into the sea. Sometime in the far distant future, perhaps billions of years from now, Pioneer may pass through a planetary system of a remote stellar neighbor, one of whose planets may have evolved intelligent life. If that life possesses the technical ability and curiosity, it may detect and pick up the spacecraft and inspect it. Then the plaque with its message from Earth may be found and deciphered. The late Dr. Carl Sagan, who helped design the plaque, discusses the significance of the plaque placed in Pioneer 10.


The hydrogen line
The hydrogen line, 21 centimetre line or HI line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms. This electromagnetic radiation is at the precise frequency of 1420.40575177 MHz, which is equivalent to the vacuum wavelength of 21.10611405413 cm[citation needed] in free space. This wavelength or frequency falls within the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is observed frequently in radio astronomy, since those radio waves can penetrate the large clouds of interstellar cosmic dust that are opaque to visible light.

The ground state of neutral Hydrogen consists of a spherically symmetric electron cloud bound to a proton. Both have intrinsic magnetic dipole moments ascribed to their spin, whose interaction results in a slight increase in energy when the spins are parallel, and a decrease when antiparallel. The fact that only parallel and antiparallel states are allowed is a result of the quantum mechanical discretization of the total angular momentum of the system. When the spins are parallel, the magnetic dipole moments are antiparallel (because the electron and proton have opposite charge), thus one would naively expect this configuration to actually have lower energy just as two magnets will align so that the north pole of one is closest to the south pole of the other. This logic fails here because the electron is not spatially displaced from the proton, but encompasses it, and the magnetic dipole moments are best thought of as tiny current loops. As parallel currents attract, it is clear why the parallel magnetic dipole moments (i.e. antiparallel spins) have lower energy.

This transition is highly forbidden with an extremely small rate of 2.9×10−15 s−1, and a lifetime of around 10 million (107) years. A spontaneous occurrence of the transition is unlikely be seen in a laboratory on Earth, but it can be artificially induced using a hydrogen maser. It is commonly observed in astronomical settings such as hydrogen clouds in our galaxy and others. Owing to its long lifetime, the line has an extremely small natural width, so most broadening is due to Doppler shifts caused by bulk motion or nonzero temperature of the emitting regions.




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Iconic Carl Sagan Nasa Pioneer plaque as glitch art

source: https://www.acculation.com






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